CentOS XEN 虛擬機器文字模式安裝指令 virt-install

CentOS XEN 虛擬機器文字模式安裝指令 virt-install

VIRT-INSTALL(1) Virtual Machine Installation Tools VIRT-INSTALL(1)

virt-install - provision new virtual machines

virt-install [OPTION]...

virt-install is a command line tool for provisioning new virtual
machines using the "libvirt" hypervisor management library. The tool
supports both text based & graphical installations, using serial
console, SDL graphics or a VNC client/server pair. The guest can be
configured with one or more virtual disks and network interfaces
plumbed through to the host.

The installation media can be held locally or remotely on NFS, HTTP,
FTP servers. In the latter case "virt-install" will fetch the minimal
files necessary to kick off the installation process, allowing the
guest to fetch the rest of the OS distribution as needed.

Given suitable command line arguments, "virt-install" is capable of
running completely unattended, with the guest ’kickstarting’ itself
too. This allows for easy automation of guest installs. A companion
tool "virt-clone(1)" is provided for cloning pre-existing guests if
their installation cannot be easily automated from pristine media.

Any of the options can be omitted, in which case "virt-install" will
run interactively prompting for input as required.

-h, --help
Show the help message and exit

-n NAME, --name=NAME
Name of the new guest virtual machine instance. This must be unique
amongst all guests known to the hypervisor on this machine,
including those not currently active. To re-define an existing
guest, use the virsh(1) tool to shut it down & delete it prior to
running "virt-install". This parameter will be prompted for if
omitted on the command line.

Memory to allocate for guest instance in megabytes. If the
hypervisor does not have enough free memory, it is usual for it to
automatically take memory away from the host operating system to
satisfy this allocation. This parameter will be prompted for if
omitted on the command line.

-u UUID, --uuid=UUID
UUID for the guest; if none is given a random UUID will be
generated. If you specify UUID, you should use a 32-digit
hexadecimal number. UUID are intended to be unique across the
entire data center, and indeed world. Bear this in mind if manually
specifying a UUID

Number of virtual cpus to configure for the guest. Not all
hypervisors support SMP guests, in which case this argument will be
silently ignored

Check that the number virtual cpus requested does not exceed
physical CPUs and warn if they do.

Set which physical cpus the guest can use. "CPUSET" is a comma
seperated list of numbers, which can also be specified in ranges.

0,2,3,5 : Use processors 0,2,3 and 5
1-3,5,6-8 : Use processors 1,2,3,5,6,7 and 8

Path to the file, disk partition, or logical volume to use as the
backing store for the guest’s virtual disk. If the path does not
exist, then "--file-size" option should also be specified, allowing
the disk to be created. This parameter can be repeated multiple
times to add many disk. This parameter will be prompted for if
omitted on the command line.

-s DISKSIZE, --file-size=DISKSIZE
Size of the file to create for the guest virtual disk, if the path
given to "--file" does not already exist. The size is to be
specified in gigabytes, with fractional numbers allowed. The
storage for the file will not be pre-allocated unless the
"--nonsparse" option is also specified. This parameter will be
prompted for if omitted on the command line & a new file is to be

Request creation of a non-sparse file for the guest virtual disk.
The initial time taken to fully-allocate the guest virtual disk
will be usually by balanced by faster install times inside the
guest. Thus use of this optional is recommended to ensure
consistently high performance and to avoid I/O errors in the guest
should the host filesystem fill up.

Request a virtual machine without any local disk storage, typically
used for running ’Live CD’ images or installing to network storage
(iSCSI or NFS root). This disables all interactive prompts for
disk setup.

-m MAC, --mac=MAC
Fixed MAC address for the guest; If this parameter is omitted, or
the value "RANDOM" is specified a suitable address will be randomly
generated. For Xen virtual machines it is required that the first 3
pairs in the MAC address be the sequence ’00:16:3e’, while for QEMU
or KVM virtual machines it must be ’54:52:00’.

-b BRIDGE, --bridge=BRIDGE
Bridge device to connect the guest NIC to. This parameter is
deprecated in favour of the "--network" parameter.

-w NETWORK, --network=NETWORK
Connect the guest to the host network. The value for "NETWORK" can
take one of 3 formats:

Connect to a bridge device in the host called "BRIDGE". Use
this option if the host has static networking config & the
guest requires full outbound and inbound connectivity to/from
the LAN. Also use this if live migration will be used with this

Connect to a virtual network in the host called "NAME". Virtual
networks can be listed, created, deleted using the "virsh"
command line tool. In an unmodified install of "libvirt" there
is usually a virtual network with a name of "default". Use a
virtual network if the host has dynamic networking (eg
NetworkManager), or using wireless. The guest will be NATed to
the LAN by whichever connection is active.

Connect to the LAN using SLIRP. Only use this if running a QEMU
guest as an unprivileged user. This provides a very limited
form of NAT.

If this option is omitted a single NIC will be created in the
guest. If there is a bridge device in the host with a physical
interface enslaved, that will be used for connectivity. Failing
that, the virtual network called "default" will be used. This
option can be specified multiple times to setup more than one NIC.

Setup a virtual console in the guest and export it as a VNC server
in the host. Unless the "--vncport" parameter is also provided, the
VNC server will run on the first free port number at 5900 or above.
The actual VNC display allocated can be obtained using the
"vncdisplay" command to "virsh". If neither this, nor the "--sdl"
or "--nographics" parameters are specified, this will be prompted

Request a permanent, statically assigned port number for the guest
VNC console. Use of this option is discouraged as other guests may
automatically choose to run on this port causing a clash.

Setup a virtual console in the guest and display an SDL window in
the host to render the output. If the SDL window is closed the
guest may be unconditionally terminated.

Disable all interactive prompts for the guest virtual console. No
graphical console will be allocated for the guest. A text based
console will always be available on the first serial port (or
equivalent paravirtualised console device).

Don’t automatically try to connect to the guest console. The
default behaviour is to launch a VNC client to display the
graphical console, or to run the "virsh" "console" command to
display the text console. Use of this parameter will disable this

-k KEYMAP, --keymap=KEYMAP
Request that the virtual console be configured to run with a non-
English keyboard layout.

When installing a QEMU guest, make use of the KVM or KQEMU kernel
acceleration capabilities if available. Use of this option is
recommended unless a guest OS is known to be incompatible with the
accelerators. The KVM accelerator is preferred over KQEMU if both
are available.

--connect=CONNECT Connect to hypervisor with URI
Connect to a non-default hypervisor. The default connection is
chosen based on the following rules:

xen If running on a host with the Xen kernel (checks against

If running on a bare metal kernel as root

If running on a bare metal kernel as non-root

It is only necessary to provide the "--connect" argument if this
default prioritization is incorrect, eg if wanting to use QEMU
while on a Xen kernel.

Specify that the installation media is a live CD and thus the guest
needs to be configured to boot off the CDROM device permanently. It
may be desirable to also use the "--nodisks" flag in combination.

-v, --hvm This guest should be a fully virtualized guest
Request the use of full virtualization, if both para & full
virtualization are available on the host. This parameter may not be
available if connecting to a Xen hypervisor on a machine without
hardware virtualization support. This parameter is implied if
connecting to a QEMU based hypervisor.

-c CDROM, --cdrom=CDROM
File to use a virtual CD-ROM device for fully virtualized guests.
It can be path to an ISO image, or to a CDROM device. It can also
be a URL from which to fetch/access a minimal boot ISO image. The
URLs take the same format as described for the "--location"
argument. If this parameter is omitted then the "--location"
argument must be given to specify a location for the kernel and
initrd, or the "--pxe" argument used to install from the network.

Use the PXE boot protocol to load the initial ramdisk and kernel
for starting the guest installation process. If this parameter is
omitted then either the "--location" or "--cdrom" arguments must be
given to specify a location for the kernel and initrd.

Optimize the guest configuration for a type of operating system.
This will attempt to pick the most suitable ACPI & APIC settings,
optimally supported mouse drivers and generally accommodate other
operating system quirks. The valid operating system types are

Linux 2.x series

Microsoft Windows 9x or later

Traditional UNIX BSD or SysV derivatives

Operating systems not in one of the 3 prior groups

Further optimize the guest configuration for a specific operating
system variant. This parameter is optional. The valid variants are

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 2.1

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5

Cent OS 5

Fedora Core 5

Fedora Core 6

Fedora 7

Suse Linux Enterprise Server 10.x

Generic Linux 2.6.x kernel

Generic Linux 2.4.x kernel

Microsoft Windows XP

Microsoft Windows 2000

Microsoft Windows 2003

Microsoft Windows Vista

Sun Solaris 9

Sun Solaris 10

Free BSD 6.x

Open BSD 4.x

Microsoft DOS

Novell Netware 4

Novell Netware 5

Novell Netware 6

Override the OS type / variant to disables the APIC setting for
fully virtualized guest.

Override the OS type / variant to disables the ACPI setting for
fully virtualized guest.

Request a non-native CPU architecture for the guest virtual
machine. The option is only currently available with QEMU guests,
and will not enable use of acceleration. If omitted, the host CPU
architecture will be used in the guest.

-p, --paravirt
This guest should be a paravirtualized guest. If the host supports
both para & full virtualization, and neither this parameter nor the
"--hvm" are specified, this will be prompted for interactively.

-l LOCATION, --location=LOCATION
Installation source for guest virtual machine kernel+initrd pair.
This is required for paravirtualized guests. Fully virtualized
guests must use either "--location" to specify a kernel+initrd, or
the "--cdrom" parameter to specify an ISO/CDROM image. The
"LOCATION" can take one of the following forms:

Path to a local directory containing an installable
distribution image

An NFS server location containing an installable distribution

An HTTP server location containing an installable distribution

An FTP server location containing an installable distribution

-x EXTRA, --extra-args=EXTRA
Additional kernel command line arguments to pass to the installer
when performing a guest install from a kernel+initrd.

-d, --debug
Print debugging information to the terminal when running the
install process. The debugging information is also stored in
"$HOME/.virtinst/virt-install.log" even if this parameter is

Amount of time to wait (in minutes) for a VM to complete its
install. Without this option, virt-install will wait for the
console to close (not neccessarily indicating the guest has
shutdown), or in the case of --noautoconsole, simply kick off the
install and exit. Any negative value will make virt-install wait
indefinitely, a value of 0 triggers the same results as
noautoconsole. If the time limit is succeeded, virt-install simply
exits, leaving the virtual machine in its current state.

Install a paravirtualized Xen guest, 500 MB of RAM, a 5 GB of disk, and
Fedora Core 6 from a web server, in text-only mode:

# virt-install \
--paravirt \
--name demo \
--ram 500 \
--file /var/lib/xen/images/demo.img \
--file-size 6 \
--nographics \
--location http://download.fedora.redhat.com/pub/fedora/linux/core/6/x86_64/os/

Install a QEMU guest, with a real partition, for a different
architecture using SDL graphics, using a local ISO image:

# virt-install \
--connect qemu:///system \
--name demo \
--ram 500 \
--file /dev/hdc \
--network bridge:eth1 \
--arch ppc64 \
--sdl \
--cdrom /root/boot.iso

Install a QEMU guest, with a real partition, for a different
architecture using SDL graphics, using a remote kernel and initrd pair:

# virt-install \
--connect qemu:///system \
--name demo \
--ram 500 \
--file /dev/hdc \
--network bridge:eth1 \
--arch ppc64 \
--sdl \
--location http://download.fedora.redhat.com/pub/fedora/linux/core/6/x86_64/os/

Install a KVM guest, using LVM partition, virtual networking, booting
from the host CDROM, using VNC server/viewer

# virt-install \
--connect qemu:///system \
--name demo
--ram 500 \
--file /dev/HostVG/DemoVM \
--network network:default \
--accelerate \
--vnc \
--cdrom /dev/cdrom

Run a Live CD image under Xen fullyvirt, in diskless environment

# virt-install \
--hvm \
--name demo \
--ram 500 \
--nodisk \
--livecd \
--vnc \
--cdrom /root/fedora7live.iso

Written by Daniel P. Berrange, Hugh Brock, Jeremy Katz and a team of
many other contributors. See the AUTHORS file in the source
distribution for the complete list of credits.

Report bugs to the mailing list
"http://www.redhat.com/mailman/listinfo/et-mgmt-tools" or directly to
BugZilla "http://bugzilla.redhat.com/bugzilla/" against the "Fedora"
product, and the "python-virtinst" component.

Copyright (C) 2006-2007 Red Hat, Inc, and various contributors. This
is free software. You may redistribute copies of it under the terms of
the GNU General Public License "http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html".
There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.

virsh(1), "virt-clone(1)", "virt-manager(1)", the project website

perl v5.10.0 2008-09-15 VIRT-INSTALL(1)

* 先要有各安裝的來源 ftp, http 或是 nfs 都可以,我有作一個放在這裡

* 及一個設定好的 ks.cfg ,這個 ks.cfg 檔案要配合安裝來源的路徑
# Kickstart file automatically generated by anaconda.

url --url http://jangmt.com/rhel54/
key --skip
lang en_US.UTF-8
network --device eth0 --bootproto dhcp
rootpw --iscrypted $1$d4HwEBk3$iMCC5SNPmY0NpG6C3mUmd1
firewall --disable --port=22:tcp
authconfig --enableshadow --enablemd5
selinux --enforcing
timezone --utc Asia/Taipei
bootloader --location=mbr --driveorder=xvda --append="console=xvc0 rhgb quiet"
# The following is the partition information you requested
# Note that any partitions you deleted are not expressed
# here so unless you clear all partitions first, this is
# not guaranteed to work
clearpart --linux
part /boot --fstype ext3 --size=100 --ondisk=xvda
part / --fstype ext3 --size=2300 --asprimary
part swap --size=200

* virt-install 安裝系統 with kickstart:
[root@lab xen]# virt-install
--paravirt \
--name rhel54 \
--ram 500 \
--file /home/xen/rhel54.img \
--file-size 3 \
--nographics \
--location http://jangmt.com/rhel54/ \
--network bridge:xenbr0
-x ks=http://jangmt.com/rhel54/ks.cfg

* 手動啟動 xen domain U
[root@lab xen]# xm create rhel54
Using config file "./rhel54".
Started domain rhel54
[root@lab xen]# xm list
Name                                      ID Mem(MiB) VCPUs State   Time(s)
Domain-0                                   0     1492     2 r-----    872.7
rhel54                                     3      499     1 -b----     18.3

* 文字模式登入 console 介面,會顯示目前系統的執行狀況,類似於開螢幕的動作。
[root@lab xen]# xm console rhel54